Our efforts to assist in the establishment of Ethiopia’s first peritoneal dialysis program are also showing gratifying results. Unlike hemodialysis, which for the most part must be performed in an inpatient or outpatient health care facility, peritoneal dialysis (PD) can be accomplished in the home setting. For this reason, a successful PD program has the potential to help many many more patients than could ever be possible through a hemodialysis program alone.  For this reason, the establishment of a sustainable PD program is arguably the most important step that could be taken in order to improve treatment options for Ethiopian kidney patients.   As the direct result of SAO’s efforts, a solution to one of the major obstacles to establishing such a program–ensuring access to the fluids required for treatment on a basis that is affordable for more than just a few–now seems to be at hand, as the required fluid is now in the early stages of production in Addis Ababa. The in-country bag manufacturer (Sa-Med) showed us a prototype bag while we were there most recently, and the company producing the fluid (Epharma) has received approval for the first trial run of production.  We are hoping that by later this year we can begin training patients, nurses, and doctors in PD. Toward that end, we also hope to begin teaching peritoneal catheter placement later this year.